Vitamins A to K: People really need them

Berlin. Man needs 13 Vitamins to survive. An overview of the foods they are in and what we need them for.             There are 13 vitamins that ensure our survival. They drive the heart, support digestion and cell growth. The nutrients differ in how they are absorbed, transported, excreted and stored in the organism. Some of them are stored for a few weeks, others for months or even years. Therefore, we do not have to take all vitamins every day. “The vitamin requirement varies from person to person anyway,” says Antje Gahl from the German Nutrition Society (DGE). Whether old or young, male or female – all of this has an impact. Pregnant women often need more vitamins because they have to take care of their unborn child. Sport and stress also influence the nutrient balance. What is sufficient for one person can therefore be too little for another.                      The daily doses recommended by the DGE are nevertheless helpful guide values ​​because they can help to put together a balanced meal plan. It should be varied and contain many plant foods such as fruits and vegetables. Because vitamin deficiency is often caused by a one-sided diet. For example through zero diets. “If you eat a balanced diet, you are usually adequately cared for,” says Gahl. If you want to be sure, you can have your blood test checked by your family doctor. Gahl advises against swallowing vitamin preparations without consultation. An overdose of vitamin C can poison the body, promote too much vitamin A hair loss and headaches. An overview of the vitamins and where they are: Vitamin A (retinol) Function: Vitamin A supports the development of red blood cells and the fat metabolism of the liver. It helps the body fight off infections because it helps keep skin and mucous membranes healthy. These form an effective barrier against bacteria, viruses and parasites. Vitamin A is also involved in building up our bones. Food (per 100 g): Calf’s liver (21, 9 mg), carrots (1.7 mg), eggs (0, 27 mg), tomatoes (0, 11 mg), mackerel (0, 1 mg) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 0.8 mg for women and 1.0 mg for men Vitamin K Function: Vitamin K supports the body’s blood clotting and strengthens the bones. The body also needs it to be able to produce sex hormones. Food (per 100 g): Sauerkraut (1500 microgram), spinach (415 Micrograms), broccoli (175 micrograms), kale (125 micrograms), carrots (65 microgram) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 60 to 65 microgram for women and 70 to 80 microgram for menVitamin B3 Function: Niacin has an anti-inflammatory effect, helps regulate blood sugar levels and lowers various blood lipid levels. The vitamin is essential for cellular respiration, energy production and the functioning of the nervous and digestive systems. Food (per 100): peanuts (14, 0 mg), Tuna (10, 5 mg), Chicken Breast (10, 5 mg), mushrooms (4, 7 mg), potatoes including peel (1.0 mg) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 11 to 13 mg for women and 14 to 16 mg for menFood for more energyVitamin B 12 Function: Vitamin B 12 participates in the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow and supports cell division and nerve function. Many animals can produce it themselves using intestinal bacteria. People eat it when they drink their milk, eat their meat or eggs. Vegans who do not eat animal foods can use vitamin B 12 in the form of tablets. Food (per 100): Calf’s liver (60 microgram), salmon (3.0 microgram), Camembert / 30 percent fat (3.1 micrograms) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 4.0 micrograms for women and men Vitamin E Function: Vitamin E protects our cells from oxidative stress, which is triggered by so-called free radicals. They are an important part of the body and even protect against pathogens. However, if their concentration increases over a longer period of time, the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases also increases. Food (per 100 g): Wheat germ oil (185 mg), hazelnuts (26, 6 mg), sweet almonds (25, 2 mg), sunflower seeds (21 mg) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 11 to 12 mg for women and 12 to 15 mg for men Vitamin B1 (thiamin) Function: The body can only store a small amount of the water-soluble vitamin. That is why it is particularly important to regularly eat foods that contain thiamine. Among other things, it helps convert carbohydrates into energy, supports certain nerve functions and not least the heart function. Food (per 100 g): Ham (0, 80 mg), oatmeal (0, 65 mg), sunflower seeds (0, 60 mg), white beans (0.5 mg) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 1 mg for women and 1.1 to 1.3 mg for men Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) Function: Vitamin B5 is essential for the carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. It also supports the body’s production of sex hormones, steroid hormones, cholesterol and vitamin D. Food (per 100 g): Calf’s liver (7.5 mg), peanuts (2.6 mg), soybeans (1.9 mg), brown rice (1.7 mg), watermelon (1.6 mg), broccoli (1.3 mg) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 6 mg for women and menVitamin B6 Function: Vitamin B6 is involved in central metabolic processes such as the conversion of proteins and the protection of nerve connections. The nutrient also supports the formation of hemoglobin and oxygen transport through the red blood cells. Food (per 100 g): Walnuts (0, 87 mg), lentils (0, 60 mg), turkey meat (0, 46 mg), bananas (0, 37 mg), spinach (0, 20 mg) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 1.4 mg for women and 1.6 mg for men vitamin C Function: The body needs vitamin C for numerous metabolic processes – for example to build up connective tissue, bones and cartilage and to form hormones. It also inhibits the formation of carcinogenic salts that can develop in the stomach and improves iron absorption. Food (per 100 g): sea buckthorn berries (450 mg), black currants (177 mg), bell pepper (120 mg), broccoli (115 mg), kale (105 mg), kiwi (80 mg) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 95 mg for women and 110 mg men vitamin D Function: Vitamin D strengthens the heart muscle strength, protects the inner walls of the vessels and helps regulate blood lipid levels. It is also essential for bone building because it promotes the absorption of calcium from food and increases the amount of calcium stored in the body. Unlike other vitamins, the body can produce vitamin D itself – using sunlight. Food (per 100) g): Salmon (16 microgram), tuna (5.0 microgram), egg (2.9 microgram), mushrooms (1.9 microgram ) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 20 microgram for women and menVitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Function: The body needs riboflavin, among other things, to utilize carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Vitamin B2 also supports tissue growth. Food (per 100 g): mushrooms (0, 45 mg), eggs (0, 41 mg), spinach (0, 20 mg), broccoli (0.2 mg), yogurt (0, 18 mg) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 1.0 to 1.1 mg for women and 1.3 to 1.4 mg for men Function: The vitamin is essential for the healthy development of a fetus. Because it supports the formation of the central nervous system of unborn babies. But adults should also pay attention to a diet containing folic acid: especially cells that quickly decay and renew themselves (including intestinal wall, lung and blood cells) require sufficient folic acid Food (per 100 g): wheat germ (270 microgram), red beans (250 microgram), corn salad (145 microgram), cabbage sprouts (101 microgram), eggs (67 microgram) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 300 microgram for women and men biotin Function: Biotin promotes the growth of blood cells, sebaceous glands and nerve tissue. It also supports so-called keratin proteins, which are important not only for shiny hair, but also for healthy, smooth skin. Food (per 100): Calf’s liver (75 micrograms), soybeans (60 micrograms), peanuts (34 microgram), oatmeal (20 microgram), avocado (10 microgram) Recommended daily requirement (according to DGE): 30 to 60 Microgram for women and men
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